Tigers, sloth bear, leopard, indian bison, hyena, wild dogs etc reside in VTR. Several species of deer and antelope viz. barking deer, spotted deer, hog deer, sambar, blue bull are also present. Apart from these, leopard cat, wild cat, fishing cat, wild boar, serow, civets, flying squirrel, etc. can also be sighted. On the main road from Madanpur to Valmikinagar, large number of Indian flying fox can be seen.
Reptiles found in VTR are python, cobra, king cobra, krait, banded krait, domuha snake (sand boa), etc. Among aquatic reptiles crocodiles, otters (water cat), ghariyal, monitor lizard, etc. are present. Recently Ghariyals have been released in Gandak from Patna zoo.
More than 250 bird species have been reported from VTR. Some of the interesting birds of VTR are Nepal khaleej pheasant, three-toed quail, flycatcher, grey shrike, green willow warbler, tree pipit, and green barbet, waders, ibises, storks, pitta, plovers, snipes, pied hornbill & emerald dove. There are five types of green pigeons and purple wood pigeon found in VTR. In the night several owls, owlets, nightjars, etc can be easily sighted. The reserve has been designated as an Important Bird Area (IBA) by the Indian Bird Conservation Network.
Jungle of VTR abound in various kinds of moth, caterpillars and butterflies. Some common butterflies like common mormon, great mormon, glassy tiger, great eggfly, club beak, grey pansy, lime butterfly can easily be sighted.