Valmiki Tiger Reserve forms the eastern most limit of the Himalayan Terai forests in India, and which is the only tiger reserve of Bihar. Situated in the Gangetic Plains bio-geographic zone of the country, the forest has combination of bhabar and terai tracts. Boulder and pebble deposits by the Himalayan Rivers in the foothills characterize the Bhabar tract, while the finer sediment deposits feature terai lands.
Valmiki Tiger Reserve lies in the north-westernmost West Champaran district of Bihar. Name of the district has been derived from two words Champa and Aranya meaning Forest of Champa trees. Geographically, it is situated between 83 ° 50' and 84 ° 10' E longitude and between 27 ° 10' and 27° 03' N latitude.
Wild Animal Diversity
Wild mammals found in the forests of Valmiki Tiger Reserve are Tiger, Sloth bear, Leopard, Wild dog, Bison, Wild boar etc. Several species of deer and antelopes viz barking deer, spotted deer, hog deer, sambar and blue bull are also found here. Apart from these hyena, leopard cat, wild cat, fishing cat, langur, monkey, flying squirrel, civets etc. can also be sighted in the Tiger Reserve.
In Madanpur forest block large number of Indian flying foxes can be sighted. The Reserve has rich avi-fauna diversity. Over 250 species of birds have been reported.